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艺术与植物(一):莎士比亚作品中的植物

热度 1已有 2749 次阅读2011-10-8 14:55 |个人分类:文化研究|

   

    威廉·莎士比亚的戏剧作品中,涉及到的植物很多。这些植物不仅恰如其分地烘托出当时的环境,而且丰富的植物文化内涵和特殊的植物象征意义更耐人寻味。本期将展示莎士比亚作品中常见的植物及植物文化内涵。莎士比亚作品中植物的象征手法揭示了过去几个世纪人们与植物关系的变迁。透过这些植物文化,体会人们的生活经历与植物生命周期如何完美地关联在一起。

 

 

16世纪的英国,樱桃树已普遍种植,因花美,果甜而著称。

 

Helena: So we grew together,

Like to a double Cherry, seeming parted,

But yet a union in partition;

Two lovely berries moulded on one stem.

Midsummer Night\'s Dream, act iii, sc. 2 (208).

引文节选自莎士比亚作品:《仲夏夜之梦》

 

 

 

    树叶在微风中颤抖,山杨树是情绪波动和决心动摇的象征。

 

Mistress Quickly: Feel, masters, how I shake Yea, in very truth do I an \'twere an Aspen leaf.

 2nd Henry IV, act ii, sc. 4 (114).

引文节选自莎士比亚作品:《亨利二世》

 

 

 

 

    枝叶常绿和芳香气味的迷迭香是神圣回忆和永久友谊的象征。

 

 Ophelia: There\'s Rosemary, that\'s for remembrance; pray, love, remember.

 Hamlet, act iv, sc. 5 (175).

引文节选自莎士比亚作品:《哈姆雷特》

 

 

     在莎士比亚时代,人们相信植物也常具备周围相邻植物的特性。例如,芬芳甜香的花可使周围果树的香味更加浓郁。但草莓被视为例外。它那可人的,雅致的早夏成熟的果实可使旁边令人讨厌的植物(例大荨麻)长得更健壮。

 

Bishop of Ely: The Strawberry grows underneath the Nettle,

And wholesome berries thrive and ripen best

Neighbour\'d by fruit of baser quality;

And so the prince obscured his contemplation

Under the veil of wildness. 

 Henry V, act i, sc. 1 (60).

引文节选自莎士比亚作品:《亨利五世》

 

 

 

    

    牛蒡(Arctium lappa),喜欢紧附在过路者身上。被赋予了坚忍不拔和爱的象征。

 

Lucio: Nay, friar, I am a kind of Bur;
I shall stick.

 Measure for Measure, act iv, sc. 3 (149).

 Celia. They are but Burs, cousin, thrown upon thee in holiday foolery; if we walk not in the trodden paths our very petticoats will catch them.

Rosalind. I could shake them off my coat; these Burs are in my heart. 

 As You Like It, act i, sc. 3 (13).

引文节选自莎士比亚作品:《一报还一报》,《皆大欢喜》

 

 

 

    浪漫幽雅的柳树,16世纪曾是极度悲痛,遭受惩罚的象征。叶子编织成罪恶情人的花环,常被种植在墓地。奥佩罗淹死在一棵柳树下。

 

Queen: There is a Willow grows aslant a brook,

That shows his hoar leaves in the glassy stream.

There on the pendent boughs her coronet weeds

Clambering to hang, an envious sliver broke.

Hamlet, act iv, sc. 7 (167).

Desdemona (singing): The poor soul sat sighing by a Sycamore tree.

Sing all a green Willow; 
Her hand on her bosom, her head on her knee,

Sing Willow, Willow, Willow. 
The fresh streams ran by her, and murmur\'d her moans;

Sing Willow, Willow, Willow. 
Her salt tears fell from her and soften\'d the stones,

Sing Willow, Willow, Willow. 
Sing all a green Willow must be my garland.

Othello, act iv, sc. 3 (41).

引文节选自莎士比亚作品:《哈姆雷特》、《奥塞罗》

 

 

 

    莎士比亚常用玫瑰象征不可超越的年轻和美丽——他们的强烈对比。象征玫瑰比喻美丽是短暂的,而且有刺不可轻易得到。

 

Juliet: What\'s in a name? That which we call a Rose

By any other name would smell as sweet.

Romeo and Juliet, act ii, sc. 2 (43). 

Othello: When I have pluck\'d the Rose,

I cannot give it vital growth again,

It needs must wither. I\'ll smell it on the tree.

Othello, act v, sc. 2 (13). 

Diana: When you have our Roses,

You barely leave us thorns to prick ourselves 
And mock us with our bareness. 

All\'s Well that Ends Well, act iv, sc. 2 (18). 

引文节选自莎士比亚作品:《罗密欧与朱丽叶》,《奥塞罗》,《结果好一切都好》

 

 

 

 

    杏树被看作是早熟丰产树,可生出满树繁花和累累果实。杏树被看作是重负,慷慨和子孙的象征。

 

Gardener: Go, bind thou up yon dangling Apricocks,

Which, like unruly children, make their sire

Stoop with oppression of their prodigal weight. 

 Richard II, act iii, sc. 4 (29).

引文节选自莎士比亚作品:《理查二世》

 

 

 

     

    百合花是和圣女玛丽亚相关的花,在天使传报油画中常有所表现。百合花象征着完美无暇和纯洁。

 

Salisbury: To gild refined gold, to paint the Lily,

To throw a perfume on the Violet,

Is wasteful and ridiculous excess.

King John, act iv, sc. 2 (11).

 Princess.  Now by my maiden honour, yet as pure As the unsullied Lily.

 Love\'s Labour\'s Lost, act v, sc. 2 (351).

引文节选自莎士比亚作品:《约翰王》、《爱的徒劳》

 

 

 

     尽管蕨类植物后来在英国流行起来,但在莎士比亚时代却被看作是不寻常的奇特事物。蕨类植物不象开花植物那样依靠种子繁殖,而是依靠孢子繁殖。蕨类植物的生命周期是奇异隐秘的。

 

Gadshill: We have the receipt of Fern-seed—we walk invisible.

Henry IV, act ii, sc. I (95).

引文节选自莎士比亚作品:《亨利五世》

 

 

 

 

 


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